Jens Schröter: The Complexity of Technological Images. The Four Optical Series

The role of perception or, to be more precise, theories of perception for the understanding of the history and aesthetics of media is often discussed in an undifferentiated way. One example: Kittler’s famous claim – quoted in the exposé for the conference in Szeged – that ‘technical media build on overwhelming our senses’ presupposes that knowledge about the senses is implied in the genealogy of technical media. But generalized in this way the claim is problematic. There are indeed imaging technologies, which are built to overwhelm our senses – in presupposing knowledge (at least in an empirical sense) about them – e.g. film and stereoscopy. But there are also imaging technologies which do not at all presuppose knowledge on perception, e.g. photography and holography. These media presuppose physical (geometrical or wave) optics, and not physiological optics (Crary). They presuppose knowledge (at least in an empirical sense) about the behavior of light. In the first part of the text these differences are reconstructed by criticizing Crary’s approach. In the second part holography is discussed as an important imaging technology from the 20th century, that is not based on physiological optics. Also, there are forms which do not fall in either of these categories. Coming from a long history from drawing and painting and re-emerging in digital images, there are parallel-perspectival representations, which neither accord to human perception nor to the behavior of light. In addition to approximately simulating visual and optical media, digital computers also include non-optical forms of imagistic representation and even combine all the different forms. This point is made in the third part of the paper. Finally, the argument shows that the complexity of contemporary technical imagery cannot be reduced to physiology, optics or non-optical forms alone. Perception is just one element among others.

Christoph Ernst: The Mediation of Perception in Mythological Thinking – On Diagrammatic Explication, Speculative Reasoning and the Myth of the Martian Civilization

The text discusses the role of diagrammatic reasoning as a speculative type of thinking. With regard to the well known stories of the Martian canals at the end of the 19th century and the so called ‘mars-face’ in the 20th century, it can be shown that diagrammatic reasoning is an integral part in the interpretation of ambivalences and ambiguities of the perceptions provided by modern technical media, such as the telescope and photography. Diagrammatic reasoning, thus, plays a central role in the cultural phenomenon of mythological thinking.

György Fogarasi: Teletrauma: Distance in Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry

This paper seeks to trace the notion of distance in Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry, by first indicating how the critical distance between Burke and Kant can be rethought in terms of an intrapersonal distance within both; then, as a second move, by looking at Burke’s general theory of the passions (Part 1) as it differs from that of Locke; and thirdly, by moving to the more specific question of how the passion of fear or terror is related to both pain and the sublime (Part 2 and Part 4) – an investigation, which in turn necessitates a focus on the way attention figures as a duplicitous shifter between an-aesthesis and suffering (Part 4). Interestingly enough, while Burke conceptualizes the sublime as a passion based on mediation or distance, and therefore distinguishes it from “simple” fear (underlining that the subject must not be in immediate danger, and that he or she must be spatially or temporally distanced from the source of the passion), later it turns out that fear itself is far from being a “simple” notion for immediacy, since immediate danger or threat still presupposes a mere apprehension of pain, rather than pure pain itself. This double distance (between fear and the sublime, as well as between fear and pain), puts fear in an intermediate position, which is more traumatic than that of the sublime, but which contains an element of distance with relation to pain, and is therefore a form of “teletrauma”, an amalgam of an-aesthesis and suffering. Being thus positioned between the sublime and pain, fear appears as the site of contamination, where detachment and involvement merge. In this respect, it may serve as a conceptual tool for a critical rethinking of the problematic nature of both aesthetic distance and perceptual immediacy.

Ákos Seress: Playing with blends. Theatre studies and cognitive science

The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look at the relationship between cognitive sciences and theatre studies. First of all I examine if it is justified to speak about a “cognitive turn”  in the discourse on thetricality. By examining the major works that are being labelled as “Cognitive Theatre Studies”, I discuss the new methods and theories dealing with theatrical phenomena. I also discuss the relationship these theories have with former studies. One of the most disturbing problems of theatre studies is that despite all the efforts, no sufficient definition has been offered for the term theatre. Using the means of cognitive studies, the paper argues that theatre researchers had an opportunity to examine this problem from another aspect. According to them the real question is not what theatre is, but rather what happens to the audience while perceving a theatrical event, or what processes of the mind make us be able to endulge in a fictional scene. Certain researches try to use neurobiologycal answers, but these, in my view, have not been able to achive a real breakthrough. I rather focus on studies that were developed from cognitive linguistics, and try to define theatricality by using Giles Fauconnier’s theory on conceptual blending. This theory not only gives us a good explanation about theatre, but it also opens up the opportunity to examine a certain hibridity of the theatrical medium: productions and dramatic texts that are blending film, theatre and radio.


Beja Margitházi: “Last night I was in the Kingdom of Shadows…” . The Role of Body and Senses in Various “First Contact” Narratives

If we look at the first descriptions about the early audience’s collective or individual responses to moving images at the turn of the century, we see a picture with many layers. Whether they are refuted myths (like the “train effect”), late interpretations (like “astonishment”, “stupefying effect” by Tom Gunning), or subjective, first-person reports (like Maxim Gorky’s), these “first contact” narratives not only catch the rare, emblematic moments of first encounter, but preserve and reflect the contemporary attitude about how the new medium should be. True or not, authentic or not, these nostalgic, mythological or anecdotic descriptions tell us about the desires, fears and guesses surrounding the emergence of the moving image, and offer a rich ground for further investigation. My paper intends to examine some of these early movie-going impressions with a special focus on the role of senses and previous visual experiences shaping perception and body reaction. I will try to explore the mechanisms and patterns working behind these first contact stories, by drawing attention to the importance of the fact that the moving image declares itself a visual and haptic medium in a moment when cinematic experience collapses perceptual distance and brings images almost unbearably close to the viewers.

Izabella Füzi:  Mechanical motion and body movements in early cinema and in Hungarian film theory of the 1920s

The paper traces a trajectory of changes in the concept of movement. The starting point is the beginning of the 20th century, when scientific innovations and theories forward the notion of movement as a master concept, and cinema is accounted for as an “art of movement”, while the end point is the 1920s, when movement is theorized as the proper “matter” of cinema and abstracted into different forms. The celebration of mechanical motion and technology’s unifying and integrating power is demonstrated in the discourses on the automobile as a machine forwarding new forms of movement. In Octave Mirbeau’s 1907 novel the experience of driving is described in similar terms to that of viewing cinema. Both generate images which convert depth into surface, stillness into motion, translating mechanical motion into visual terms. The second part of the paper deals with Hungarian film theories of the 1920s, where movement is conceptualized as a creative force, a medium-specific sensorial experience characteristic to cinema. Both Marsovszky and Balázs seek various modes through which the body becomes meaningful as a site of visibility and a vehicle of movement at the same time. While early cinema used mechanical motion as intensification of its spectacular character, aesthetic writings of 1920s sought for the form which could counterbalance mechanical power or elaborate a new aesthetic experience. In creating the aesthetic premises of an “art of movement”, Marsovszky and Balázs turn to the body: the former is looking for the “resistance” through which movement can be animated, the latter takes the body and the face as models for the elaboration of cinema’s visual semiotics. Balázs’s semiotics of the body is rooted in complex signifying relations and a temporality of becoming. Images do not possess clear-cut boundaries, but they constitute passages between different sign relations or meanings through which the viewer can enter the stage. Dienes’s orchestics, based on body movement conceived as a “medium”, develop a body culture and practice which stand for the absent film practice of Balázsian ideas of the body.

Eszter Polónyi: Béla Balázs and the Eye of the Microscope

This study explores the significance of the cinematic close-up to one of the earliest theories of film, produced by Béla Balázs, on the basis of a widespread technique of microscopy in the life sciences, notably in the work of his brother Evin Bauer, a theorist of microbiology.

Balázs imagines that silent film records life in its immanence and spontaneity by virtue of what he calls the “physiognomic” nature of its signs. Rather than generating signs that must be passed through an alphabetic cipher, as had been required under the regime of the written or literary, Balázs presents film as liberating our access to the flow of optical data. Interestingly, however, Balázs retains the need otherwise characteristic of scientific analysis for dividing up the image into semiotic units, what he describes as “atomization.” He insists on returning the real to a symbolic order and making film into a language. Although he rejects the intellect as capable of expressing and comprehending life, Balázs produces a semiotic system for its analysis that anticipates the “errors” that could arise from subjective perception. If cinema’s “language” is both methodical and irrational, both scientific and aesthetic, this is because its images systematically provoke signs in the viewer of a “physiognomic” rather than rational order. And as microscopic studies of the life sciences such as his brother’s had shown in the 1920s and 1930s, the “language” of life could only be known by leaving behind the familiar, Newtonian space-time of visible, “macro” reality.


Miklós Marsovszky: New Art: The Film (1924)

The essay takes on the task to examine more closely the premises and consequences of the statement according to which the matter of cinema is movement. This is done by speculating on the ideal form of cinema and by integrating cinema in the system of aesthetic thought, although this is possible only by rethinking its master concepts.

Béla Balázs: Daydream (192?)

Written during the period leading up to Balázs’s first formulation of his theory of film in Visible Man (published in 1924), this short meditation on microbes recuperates the biologism of early twentieth-century notions of the unconscious.

Előző cikkThe Complexity of Technological Images. The Four Optical Series Következő cikkKim Ki-duk: Bin-jip. A test által kísért(ett) látvány


Erwin Feyersinger: Diegetic Short Circuits: Metalepsis in Animation

This article explores a unique phenomenon termed metalepsis. A metalepsis is a fictional and paradoxical transgression of the border between mutually exclusive worlds, a border that cannot be transgressed in our actual world. The hand of the animator reaching into the diegesis of his creations as well as characters communicating with the audience, escaping to the world of their creators, or altering their own worlds are various types of metaleptic transgressions. Even though this phenomenon appears extensively throughout the history of animation, it has not been theorized in animation studies so far. This article introduces transmedial narratological conceptualizations of the metalepsis as an analytical tool for examining animation. It discusses a wide range of examples, testing the applicability of the framework on various animated forms.

Beáta Pusztai: Comics + Film = Animation film? The Japanese Animated Film in the Network of Intermedial Adaptations

This essay is a case study that addresses the issue of intermedial communication among the following three media of contemporary popular visual culture in Japan: comics (manga), animated film (anime), and live action film (jissha). Supposing that the manga-anime-jissha order reflects the actual order of influence and borrowing, the essay attempts to give the reader an overview of the possible ways of interaction among these media and examines the most frequently treated area of motif-borrowing. The following problems are dealt with: constructing space and time; detachment of the background of the shot from its diegetic foreground; and interaction among different levels of narration. The primary objective of the study is to define the anime as the ‘link' between the graphic medium of the manga and live action motion picture, which synthetisizes all the achievements of the other two media.


Orsolya Bencsik: The voice of the unknowable. Dolls and puppets as the intermediates of the soul


The aim of this essay is to emphasize the significant role of dolls and puppets as symbols of the soul and the unconscious in animated films and live-action films that are similar to animated films, at least from the point of view of applying puppets. The argumentation is based on films (including Takeshi Kitano's Dolls, Patrick Smith's Puppet, Jan Švankmajer's Alice) related to the representation of dreams, fantasies and nightmares. All of these processes offer visual devices to express our conscious and unconscious emotions and instincts. In my opinion, dolls and puppets are able to mediate and project emotions, instincts and anxieties, because they resemble the human body, although they are highly stylized at the same time.


Olga Blackledge: Violence, Chases and the Construction of Bodies in American and Soviet Animated Series

This article explores violence in animated films. The economic and social contexts of animated film production (of the USA and the USSR) are connected to the construction and dynamics of characters' bodies. By analysing animated chase series, the author suggests that violence that results in the fluidity and changeability of animated bodies can be regarded as a manifestation of an intrinsic feature of animated film, similar in function to what Sergei Eisenstein called ‘plasmaticness'. This feature disappears from animated films when animated characters are humanized.


Péter Gerencsér: From Propaganda to Metalingual Self-Reflection: On the Political Tradition of the Czech Animated Film

This study focuses on the relationship of the Czech animation and political themes within the period between the 1930s and the 1960s, particularly through Hermína Týrlová's Ferda the Ant (1943) and Revolt of the Toys (1946), Wedding in the Coral Sea (1945) formally directed by Horst von Möllendorff, and Jiří Trnka's The Spring-Man and the SS (1946) and The Hand (1965). It reads these films in the contexts of puppet film and hybrid technique (live action and stop motion) on the one hand, while, on the other hand, of the Disney style, the Nazi propaganda cinema and wartoon. It examines the trajectory of Czech animated film from advertising animated shorts through propaganda film and political satire to the masterpiece of Trnka's The Hand that combines political allegory and self-reflexive film.


Patrícia Castello-Branco: Pure Sensations? From Abstract Film to Digital Images

This article is a study of ‘film as sensation'. It provides a new approach to abstract cinema practices and demonstrates that they include the idea of ‘pure sensation'. Therefore, abstract cinema should not be interpreted as purely structural and conceptual. The author argues that ‘film as sensation' has been part of the essence of cinema since the very beginning of its history. The argument proceeds from a brief rewriting of the history of abstract cinema towards demonstrating how ‘film as sensation' is present in the essential moments of cinema's history. Furthermore, it is argued that this concept of ‘film as sensation' does not correspond to an idea of cinema or visual effects as ‘pure entertainment' but should be understood as a ‘critical rupture'. This idea of ‘critical rupture' finds its theoretical justification in the concept of ‘perceptive shock' or ‘perceptive trauma' from which Walter Benjamin justified the aesthetic intentions of the new-born art.


Anna Ida Orosz: "History from the Inside". A survey to analyze the representation of memory in historical animated documentaries

In the present paper I propose a solution to the apparent paradox of animated documentaries through the definition of its problematics and the analysis of specific cinematographic examples. Following the short introduction of the two film-making practices, I give an overview of the widely used and accepted Nicholsian typology of live action documentaries. The question examined is whether and how animated films can be included in the documentary typology and what consequences are entailed by such a fusion. I analyze the "marriage" of specific filmic examples taken from the genre of history documentaries, which I see as the perfect field to demonstrate the duality of the fictional and the real, of the constructed and the re-constructed. Photographic documentary footage serves to evoke historical events in a direct manner, and through them the mise-en-scène of history ("history from the outside"), while animated sequences evoke history through personal life experiences in a deeply subjective manner ("history from the inside").

Csilla Zsély: Animated Characters Against Hitler. The Animation Propaganda of the United States During World War II

The essay analyses the animation propaganda of the United States during World War II in many different aspects with the purpose to acquaint the reader with a special part of the American animated film history currently outside the canon. The analysis tries to give a comprehensive representation of this period: besides the war plot orientated animated films it also discusses films about the antagonistic ideology and demonstrates the propaganda aiming to win the support of the people in the homeland.


Barbara Dudás: Game and film without Borders

The paper examines the mutual influence of computer games and cinema. Computer games feature several elements that are borrowed from the filmic toolbox, such as montage, cut-scenes and trailers, and thus the genre is clearly influenced by film. The effect, however, works the other way as well. In order to prove this proposition, the argument sets out with the overview of Lev Manovich's database logic, and analyses the way this logic is applicable to games, as well as the way games can influence films in this framework. One example is the technology relying on the database logic used for crowd scenes in feature films, while the other is Manovich's Soft Cinema. The argument proceeds with the presentation of the algorithm-logic of games, as well as the repetition-logic defined by the user – these tools can be detected in feature films as well. Finally, the adaptation of the player is discussed in the film entitled Doom, while the logic of cut scenes is detected in Sucker Punch. Interactive cinema is described as the best example of the mutual influence of game and film, combining the advantages of both.


Előző cikkA telefonhívás Következő cikkTartalom - 2012. ősz

In our Spring issue we have selected articles dealing with two subjects. The Media/Mediality section deals with the concept of the medium, a notion that continues to remain in the forefront of humanities. While John Guillory's far-reaching article examines the historical contexts necessary for the appearance of the concept of the medium from a language theoretical and philosophical point of view, Joachim Paech concentrates on shifts that resulted from different conceptualizations of film and cinema: as art, as text and as a medium. The common topic of Mary Ann Doane's and Jens Schröter's article is the indexical quality of the photographic image, but they interpret the analogue/digital shift rather differently: in Doane's understanding it is a turning point regarding the traditional concept of the medium (which is contested by the fantasy of immateriality invoked by the digital), while Schröter emphasizes that the referentiality of both the analogue and the digital image is generated by explication, contextualization and other intermedial procedures. Ákos Seress' article presents the medial rivalry between cinema and theatre, and the change of the viewer's position based on the analysis of Death of a Salesman.

The section entitled "Documents" of Sound Recording contains translations of texts contemporary to the invention of sound reproduction. (We dedicated the Fall 2011 thematic issue of Apertúra to the analysis of cinematic sound.) The articles published in magazines, journals, and trade papers, sci-fi stories and short stories invoke the fears, anxieties and hopes related to this technical innovation: the disembodied, acousmatic or deadly sound, the reproduction of dead persons' voices, voice as the imprint of the personality, coupling of sound and image.


John Guillory: Genesis of the Media Concept

Guillory's far-reaching study examines the origin of the media concept, a term that has entered the foreground of the humanities and social studies. It refers primarily to philosophical works and studies in language philosophy in order to discover the emergence of ideas and claims required for the development of the concept. Persuasion, communication, means, mediation, representation are related to historical contexts that, with the help of specific texts (by Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Wilkins, Mill, Mallarmé, Saussure, Pierce, etc.) allow their examination as annotations of the history of the media concept The study claims that the media concept, in the sense it is used today, has been lacking from theories of language and cognition, and regards the 19th century understanding of language as communication as a turning point, according to which the media concept presents a challenge to the dominant idea of representation. Relying on the explanatory potential of the media concept understood as removal, Guillory makes a proposition towards the rearrangement of the disciplinary landscape of literature, media, communication and cultural studies.
Full text in Hungarian →


Joachim Paech: Why media?

The article is the text of a speech Joachim Paech gave when retiring from the University of Konstanz on April 30, 2007. The author gives an outline of the history of approaches to film. What was the film regarded as at the beginning, within the context of arts, how did it a become text with the appearance of television and VCR player, and finally, why do we regard it as medium, and what does film as medium mean?
Full text in Hungarian →


Mary Ann Doane: The Indexical and the Concept of Medium Specificity

The aim of Doane's study is to articulate the idea of medium specificity and cinema's medium specificity regarding especially the analogue-digital change of our days. Taking its starting point in Pierce's taxonomy of signs, it investigates the indexicality of cinematic image. Doane points out that Pierce outlines two different, somewhat contradictory definitions of the index: index as trace and index as deixis. While the first concept bears witness to an existence (which for Barthes is the "this has been" moment of photography), deixis is the extension of a pointing gesture in which it dissolves itself. Doane argues that the cinematic image rests on a dialectic of the index as trace and index as deixis. Contrary to the cinematic image defined by the index, the digital legitimates itself as a medium without materiality built on the fantasy of dematerialization and abstraction. In answering the question whether the digital is a medium or not, the essay leans towards asserting the idea that because it has no necessary relation with time and historicity, the digital suppresses the notion of the medium as we know it.
Full text in Hungarian →


Jens Schröter: Analogue/Digital

Through a discussion of the special similarities and differences of digital and analogue photography, the present study criticizes the popular notion of the relevant literature according to which digital photographs lose their reference to reality simply because of their digital nature. The author points out that digital photography (gathering momentum after its rapid development in the 1990s) gains its reference (similarly to analogue photographs) not simply by an indexical relationship with the object or event being photographed, but by adding explanatory, supplementary and other intermedial aspects many consider to be a "falsification", a manipulation of reality. The study also criticizes the generally negative preconceptions about manipulation as a process, and it puts forward significant and famous examples from the fields of modern medicine, astrophysics and particle physics that prove how manipulation was many times a precondition of reference and not its counterpart even in analogue times. By comparing the charactersitics of analogue and digital images, the author offers a much larger, intermedial frame for the creation of referentiality, going beyond the digital and photochemical methods themselves.
Full text in Hungarian →


Ákos Seress: Theatre, movie and the panoptic machine. The omnipotent position of the spectator in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller

This interpretation of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman focuses on the ongoing competition between film and theatre. The main goal of modern theatre was to create an omniscient position for the audience, and by building up the fourth wall it succeeded: members of the audience (as invisible spectators) were familiar with all aspect of the characters' lives. At the beginning of the 20th century, however, film managed to create the sensational illusion of seeing minds, and by doing this, it declared war on theatre. Miller's play is part of that war, since the American dramatist had the proper answer for the film: on his stage we see the protagonist's thoughts, dreams and memories. It remains questionable though, whether with this remediation Miller fulfilled the desires of modernity, or on the contrary, by using film techniques, and by showing everything to the audience, the Salesman deconstructed the omniscient position.
Full text in Hungarian →

 "Documents" of sound recording

J.D. Whelpley: The atoms of Chladni (1860)

James Davenport Whelpley is part of our cultural memory thanks to his science-fiction short stories. His piece entitled "The atoms of Chladni" (1860) was published in Harper's New Monthly Magazine and foreshadowed several technical details of sound recording. It is likely that the text was read by Edison as well, who, as a young man, sold papers and beverages on trains. Edison obtained the patent for the phonograph in 1877. Whelpley's plot includes elements of sci-fi, the topos of the mad scientist, and foreshadows dangers and anxieties entailed by sound recording, such as the possibility to misappropriate sound, to separate it from its source, and to question its indexical nature.
Full text in Hungarian →


The Speaking Phonograph (1878)

The man behind so many revolutionary discoveries has perfected yet another invention. His inspiration came as an accident, but it will someday prove of immense value. A reporter visits Thomas Alva Edison upon the news of the discovery. The Professor is found in the middle of his childish, joyful playing with his speaking phonograph at Menlo Park. After presenting the technical aspects of the machine, the Professor keeps the reporter entertained by singing nursery rhymes and a ballad into the instrument and then playing it back. Two of them then run their minds on the possibilities and capabilities of this remarkable instrument, and agree on the fact that it will benefit the whole of mankind. This paper is a hearty report with Thomas Alva Edison proudly presenting his speaking phonograph.
Full text in Hungarian →


Friedlaender, Salomo (Mynona): Goethe speaks into the phonograph (1916)

The short story entitled "Goethe speaks into the phonograph" is an interesting piece of sci-fi: it is a mockingly ironic parody, which takes the technically literal meaning of the voice of "great personalities" "conveyed" or "given voice to" through literary texts. The short story, written about the auratic effect of the metaphorical and literal understanding of voice in literature is an important document on the medial turn, brought about by technical media.
Full text in Hungarian →


John L. Cass :The Illusion of Sound and Picture

The main aim of motion picture is to create perfect illusion. The professional technique of photography developed in the years of silent cinema, combined with ingenious cuts, but a desire for musical accompaniment emerged already at this stage. Electronic companies developed an equipment which made talking picture possible by sound recording. This way a new medium of expression was created; the popularity of talkies relies on the success of illusion. In the case of talking picture, many cameras and microphones have to work together to create the perfect illusion. Since there are many requirements to maintain the illusion, a deeper understanding of recording sound and taking pictures is essential.
Full text in Hungarian →

Előző cikkA Kép Odüsszeiája. A „vizuális kultúra" tudományelmélete és politikája Következő cikkMegszólal a "megismerhetetlen". Bábok és babák mint a lélek szócsövei

Body, gender, territory

Edina Hatalyák: Kim Ki-duk: Bin-jip. The haunting vision of the body

Kim Ki-duk's camera intends to tell the story of the (filmic) body, which it can never fully grasp within the structure of cinema. Neither filmic body nor filmic space is homogenous, since both carry the possibility of the encounter with the Other, with another medium. This masterpiece of self-reflexive cinema represents a unique encounter between the filmic I and the photographic Thou. Bin-jip's camera reflects on the movements which turn Kim Ki-duk's film into an allegory of reading films. Besides, the encounter between the above mentioned two mediums, that is photography and film, gives way to some reflections on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological notions of the body and of visibility. Kim Ki-duk's camera pans what Merleau-Ponty calls anonymous Visibility, in other words visible space. The director intends to "draw" with his filmic images Merleau-Ponty's notion of the Flesh, in which all relations are based on the bodily self-relation of the I to itself.
Full text in Hungarian →

Annamária Hódosy: A skirt and two pairs of trousers. Homosocial alternatives on film

The study examines the concept of homosociality in four films – The Crying Game, A touch of Mink and two versions of Robinson Crusoe – that offer variations of the ambivalent bonding between men as analyzed by Eve Sedgwick. Although very different in every other respects, these films all build their narratives on a love triangle including one woman and two men, where the relationship between the males is not the customary rivalry and seems to problematize the boundary between homosexuality and heterosexuality. Whether drama, comedy or adventure story, these narratives highlight how heteronormativity is constructed by inserting female intermediaries between the protagonist men, even when the female party is purely metaphorical.
Full text in Hungarian →

Tamás Juhász: A Foreign Woman in Foreign Texts. Hajdu Szabolcs's Bibliotheque Pascal and the Perspective of European Post-Colonialism   

This paper aims at establishing a complex intertextual link connecting Bibliotheque Pascal, regarded by many as quintessentially Central-European, and the phenomenon of post-colonialism, even if colonization is predominantly associated with non-European territories. Manifesting itself in the broader categories of gender, narration and cultural geography, this analogy permits the exploration of such phenomena as, for example, slave narratives, oral testimonies, double colonization, and what Deleuze and Guattari describe as minor literature (littérature mineure).
Full text in Hungarian →

Psychoanalytic, motivic

György Kalmár: Subject constructs on Elm Street

The article undertakes a double task. On the one hand it performs a psychoanalytical study of Wes Craven's horror classic, A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984). On the other hand, it attempts a critical rethinking, a propos of the film, of some basic concepts of psychoanalytic film theory, especially regarding the theory of the subject of horror. The analysis of the film takes the reader on a tour that leads to a number of insights about the subject of horror, insights that are inspired by Lacan, but seem 'less Lacanian' than the canonized ones (and maybe more Deleuzian or Derridean 'in spirit').
Full text in Hungarian →

Pál Z. Szabó: This is not a mere gun. Levels of reality in Buńuel's films

The aim of the study is to contribute to a nuanced understanding of psychoanalytical film analysis. Its actuality is given by the example of Louis Buñuel's Las Hurdes, usually considered as a documentary. This genre plays a special importance, since due to the expansion of 3D technology the illusionism of the moving picture has grown, while the importance of the motion picture as the means of artistic representation has been diminished by the entertaining industry. The documentary film as an artistic form, in contradiction with the false image of the alternative realities created by fiction forms, theoretically preserves the possibility of confronting reality. At the same time, documentary film is a double-edged weapon: it is equally suitable for the unprejudiced presentation of reality as well as for the manipulation of the picture of reality. Referring to the above mentioned ideas, our attention is called to the analysis of Buñuel's film, using, among others, psychoanalysis.
Full text in Hungarian →

Miklós Sághy: The Adaptation as the unconscious of the text

This paper focuses on the interrelations between a short story by Géza Csáth, Anyagyilkosság [Matricide], first published in 1908, and its film adaptation Witman fiúk [Witman Boys], directed by János Szász. In my analysis I try to show that not only does the film follow the original storyline very closely, but it also elaborates the motive structure behind the superficial and minimalized narrative. In my opinion, the film by Szász, through cinematographic language, formulates the psychoanalytic substructure of the act of matricide depicted in the short story. 
Full text in Hungarian →


Erika Fám: A picture journey. Inste picture and inset time – games of Chronos in Zoltán Huszárik's Sinbad

Zoltan Huszárik´s Sinbad is one of the few Hungarian films that have a special visual and medial diversity. It addresses the issue of mediality with the particular form of the self-reflexive film, utilizing the full potential of intermediality. This film is a medial projection of the very varied forms of pictures. Photos, paintings, frescoes, drawings, films, tapestries appear as integral parts of the film image, the medial differences are strengthening the co-existence of the images. The study wants primarily to illuminate the visual, film-visual aspects of Huszárik's films, through an examination of  the medial interferences, analogies, visual integrations, transplantations  of  pictures, attempts to get the content of  Krúdy's world, and the way sailors experience time.
Full text in Hungarian →

Imre Vígh: Sinbad's memory technique

This essay focuses on the memory technique of Sinbad, a Hungarian feature film, released in 1971. In the author's opinion the film is approachable with the same theories and ideas that readers can use when analyzing Gyula Krúdy's short stories. This thesis is supported primarily by Henri Bergson's ideas on remembrance and Tibor Gintli's script based on The Youth of Sinbad by Gyula Krúdy. The essay sketches the theoretical frame in connection with the short stories, then applies them in understanding the film adaptation. Finally, the author concludes that there are concepts that prove more relevant for the study of the film than others.
Full text in Hungarian →

Student's workshop

Gábor Bakos: The objectified space art of Erzsébet Schaár

Sculptures by Erzsébet Schaár, which represented an original style in the 1960s, are compared in the article to the space arrangements in Alain Resnais' Last Year at Marienbad. The Hungarian artist was significantly influenced by French cinema, its abstract visual style combining art, architecture and film. The comparative analysis carried out in this study is supported by the idea that in the late modernist art of the 1960s the art of modeling was renewed through the characteristics of film, such as the dynamics of movement, the sense of time filling space (possibilities of creating space based on visual and tactile stimuli), and providing the sense of invisible time through the virtual creation of space.
Full text in Hungarian →

Gergely Sándor Birkás: The fusion of film and videogame in contemporary visual culture

Within the scope of just a few years, videogames have become the experimental ground for contemporary visual culture. The first section of the study points out the significance of the fact that digital technology is expanding and that this entails a homogenizing effect. The background technology of videogames may function as a multicolored mixture. The next section deals with the topic of intermediality: after an overview it labels digital contents based on Katalin Sándor's system. As a next step, the article examines the new possibilities of narration within the digital context, followed by the discussion of the relationship between simulation and narrative. Following the discussion of theoretical issues, the essay presents the increasingly close relations and practical ties between the film industry and the videogame industry. As a last step, the essay focuses on attributes of videogames that address different types of recipients (viewers and users) based on their experience and activity.
In order to break to the center of the popular culture preferring narratives, video games had to incorporate traditional techniques of telling stories. Recently this has been surpassed by options that provide new solutions for telling stories, making the user feel more deeply involved in the narrative.
Full text in Hungarian →


Előző cikkA Kép Odüsszeiája. A „vizuális kultúra" tudományelmélete és politikája Következő cikkMegszólal a "megismerhetetlen". Bábok és babák mint a lélek szócsövei